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Mizoram Sawrkar leh Freedom of Expression

Tunhnaiah Mamit lam Sumo service pakhat a motor hnung lama “Kawng chhe luttuk hi ka chau, Lalpa eiruk theihna lakah min veng ang che” tih thuziak tawite chu ngaimawhin District Transport Officer (DTO) kaltlangin sawrkarin thu leh awm hma chu service tawh rihlo tura thu pe in motor document pawh an laksak thu social media hrang hrangah kan hmu a. Enge hetianga thuneitu lamin hma an lakna chhan awm tur hi hriatthiam a har viau mai a. A thu inziak lah thudik tak ‘kawngchhiat thu’ leh kan ram hmelma lian eirukna lak atanga a fihlim theihna tur atana a Pathian a auhna angah lo ngai ta ila; Mizoram sawrkar tan hian a eng lai ber hi nge huat tur leh dan kalh a che anihna hi mipui nawlpui tan chuan hriatthiam a har riau mai a. Direct taka sawkar a beihna hmuh tur awm bawk silo (lo bei pawh nise thudik behchhan anih chuan dan bawhchhiatna (criminal offence) anih a rinawm chuang loh.

The Mizoram Transport Vehicle Rules 1995 (Motor Vehicle Act 1988 kenkawh anih theihna tur atana Mizoram sawrkarin dan a siam) ah chuan phek 77-78 chho a Rule150 (i) ah chuan ti hian a inziak a, “No advertising device, figure, or writing shall be exhibited on any transport vehicle save as may be specified by the State Transport Authority by general or special order”. Sawrkar lam mi leh sa thenkhat ni awma ngaih theih tur ten an han sawi hmangin hemi dan behchhan hian DTO hian action a la ani tiin an sawifiah a. Transport Department lah chuan tlai hnuhnawh tak, social media lama a darh hnu leh inhnialna nasa tak a thlen tawh hnu Ni 14.7.2017 khan he dan leh State Transport Authority (STA) in information a tihchhuahte chu mumal taka kengkawh turin district tin DTO te a hriattir a. He rule 150 (i) hian advertisement chungchang bik a sawina ni awm zawk mah hian a lang a. Chu chu India ram state tam zawk a helam pang inkaihruaina dan an neih zulzui pawh a ni a. Election kaihnawih leh advertisement atana motor/private property an phalna la hmasa lova thil ziak tar hi chu India ram hmun hrang hrangah leh Election Commission of India pawhin a khap tlat ani (Rule150 (i) chungchang bik a a hrilhfiahtu tur leh a thu ken tichiangtu tur chu court a nih angin chu chu court kutah dah ta ila). Mahse tunlai kan thu khel Mamit Sumo chungchangah hi chuan a chunga kan sawite hi a lekkawh theih kherin a rinawm loh a. A chhan chu kha motor a thuziak awm kha advertisement ani lova, election laia political party emaw candidate ten an mahni party thu an puanchhuahna slogan pawh ani heklo. Amaherawh chu private-owned public transport vehicle hova thuziak hrim hrim khapna dan ani ti a Transport Vehicle Rules150(i) hi sawrkar lamin tanfung a hmang a huamtir an tum anih chuan Indian Constitution a Fundamental Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression( Article 19 (1a) ) kalh ani ngeiin a rinawm. Chutih rual erawh chuan freedom of speech pawh hi Constitution ah vek a chintawk (restriction) a awm a (under reasonable restriction), heng:-“Security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency and morality, contempt of court, defamation, incitement to an offence, and sovereignty and integrity of India” te hi sawrkarin restriction a siam theihna chhante an ni a (See Article 19 (2)). Hei pawh hi fiahfel tak Constitution ah sawfiahna mumal a awm loh avangin Court hrilhfiahna leh thutlukna ( rulings) hrang hrang behchhana dan leklawh ani mai thin.
MVAct 1988 behchhana a hnuaia dan tesep siama hetiang public transport vehicle a thil tar chungchang hi state hrang hrang ah dan siam ni bawk mah se advertisement tar chungchang an ni tlangpui hlawm a. Supreme Court chuan advertisement zawng zawng hi a thu ken a zirin freedom of speech and expression hian huam vek lemlo bawk mah se ‘idea’ puangchhuak thil ho chu a huam ve ngei hlawm a ni tih a lo tichiang tawh bawk ( Hamdard Dwarkhand vs Union of India)

Delhi sawrkar in MV Act 1988 hnuaia Delhi Motor Vehicle rules 1993 behchhana advertisement tar chungchang inkaihhruaina dan a siam chu NGO pakhatin a khing a, chuta a khin chhan thenkhat te chu; India Danpui hnuaia dikna chanvo ‘freedom of speech & expression’ a kalh a ni tih te, Dan tesep ( MV rules) siam hi a danpui ( parent act MV Act) in a thuneihna a pek chhung leh a danpui ( parent act/ MV Act) thil tum tinzawn a ni lo, MV Act in dan tesep(rules) siamtheihna a pek hian midang hnenah dan tesep siam lehchhawntheina (sub delegation) a pe theilo tih te a ni. Heta sawrkar a khinna thenkhat hi kan thil khel lai mek nen hian a inzul hle a ni. Public transport vehicle a thilziak tar phek khap (blanket prohibition) tur zawnga he dan her rem lo tum emaw, phalsak tur bik siam tura dan chu thuneitu dang hnena dan tesep (rules) hmanga hlan chhawn leh (sub-delegation) emaw chu dan mit a tling zo tura ngaih theih a nilo. Delhi High Court hian sawrkar inkaihhruaina siam hi hman hrih loh turin a ti nghe nghe (Satish Saluja & Ors Vrs Govt of NCT of Delhi). Dan angin hma la ve ila eng tak kan ang ang maw? Dan rorelna mai bakah democracy ramah chuan mipui in heti taka kan helh tlan leh mipui mimir in thiamloh kan chantir (social sanction) thil hi chu tu tan mah en liam mai theih a nilo ang. Mi hang dikna chanvo sualtu ropui Martin Luther King Jr chuan “Mi tupawhin dan lai lo leh dan diklo chu a ngaihtuahna thiang tak atanga zawmlo turin mawhphurhna a nei a ni” a lo ti hmiah mai. Hun laihawla kohhran pa St Augustine pawhin “Dan lai lo leh diklo chu dan awmlo tluk zeta laktlaklo a ni” a ti hmiah mai.

British in India ram an awp lai khan Kumpinu sawrkar sawiselna satliah deuh pawh kha ngaithei lovin India ram hruaitu thenkhat Gandhi, Nehru, Tilak, etc te ho kha jail ah an khung fo mai a. Chu dan fair lo tak chu India ram zalenna sualtu (freedom fighters) ho pawh khan an lo dodal nasa thin hle a ni. India ramin zalenna a hmuh hnu pawh khan Min awptu te dan siam (colonial laws) tam tak la hman chhunzawm (retain) zel a nih avangin sawrkar sawiselna leh sawrkar thiltih dikloh hailan tum thintute kha India sawrkar chuan misual a chhuah in thiamloh chantir dan mawlh zawngin Birtish ho hunlai ang tho mai khan thuneihna an hmangsual nasa a. Court case tam tak pawh a awm reng a; chung zinga pawimawh tak, tuna thlenga Judge te leh dan lam mithiam (Legal luminaries) ten freedom of speech debate a awm changa anla behchhan ber court thutlukna mellung pawimawh (historic judgement) pakhat chu kum 1962 kuma Supreme Court in Kedarnath Judgment a tih chhuah kha ani. He judgement pawimawh tak hi a hnu zela sawrkar thiltih dikloh nia an hriat an hailan leh an sawiselna kawnga mimal leh a huhova hma la thin ten, sawrkarin thiamloh chantir tuma a beih pawh a an tan chhan leh court thutlukna siamtute pawhin an tanfung (reference) langsar ber pakhat ani a. Kedarnath Judgement chuan sawrkar sawiselna satliah hi midangte tharum thawh tura va fuihna emaw, law & order problem siam tumnate a awm anih si loh chuan criminal offence a tlinglo tiin chiang takin thutlukna a siam a. (See Kedarnath Das v. State of Bihar, AIR 1962 SC 955)
Tin, ram pakhat ve riang ruang, sakhua, culture, tawng chi hrang hrang inpawlh nuai mai mihring 1.3 billion chuang zet awmna ah chuan fundamental rights kan neih leh dan tesep kan neih hrang hrang te alo inkalh deuh chang alo awmlo thei lova. Chutiang harsatna alo thlen chuan engtin nge chinfel theih anih ang tiin Supreme Court pawhin hemi kaihhnawih thutlukna vawi enge maw zat alo siam tawh a e.g Champakam Dorairajan Case (1952), Golakh Nath Case (1967), Kesavanath Bharati Case (1973), Minerva Mill Case (1980). Heng judgment hrang hrang khaikhawmna atanga lo lang ta chu Parliament meuh pawhin India Constitution siamthat(amend) theihna power nei mahse India Danpuia a laimu leh ruhrel ‘basic structure of Constitution’ chu a tidanglam thianglo tih ani. Tin, dan tesep dang leh fundamental rights ho zingah thil inkalh deuh alo awm anih pawhin fundamental rights hi a dingchang zawk zel tur ani ang tiin thutlukna a siam a. Chutih rual chuan Directive principles of State Policy (DPSP) bika Article 39 (b) & (c), ‘mi tlemte kuta sum leh pai/wealth a awm lohna tura directives’ emaw Emergency lai tih lohah chuan eng dan mah Fundamental Rights chungah emaw kalh zawngin a awm thianglo ani tiin SC thutlukna hi case hrang hrang kan en chuan kan hmu thei ang. Heng dan tesep kan tih hian India ram state hrang hrang a kan dan siam Motor Vehicles Act/Rules te pawh hi a huam vek ani ti ila kan sawi sual awm lo ve.
Kum 2011 India Against Corruption Movement (IAC) vanglai pawh khan Cartoonist pakhat Aseem Trivedi chuan Anna Hazare kaihhruaina a movement inmung mek support nan ‘Cartoon Against Corruption’ a tlangaupui a; website te neiin a website www.cartoonsagainstcorruption.com ah khan sawrkar kalphung corrupt leh politician te sawiselna rorum tak tak a tarlang thin a. Chung zinga cartoon pakhat ah phei chuan Trivedi chuan India National Emblem a sakeibaknei pali awmte chu chinghnia thisena tuihal(politician) ah a thlak a, a thu inziak Satyamev Jayate (Thudik chauh dingchang rawhse) tih chu Bhrashtamev Jayate (Corruption chu lo lalber zel rawhse) tiin a thlak bawk a. He cartoon avang hian Trivedi hian ram leh hnam tana pawisawi case (sedition) mai nilovin, national emblem tibawrhbang leh IT law a bawhchhia tiin man ani a, jail ah pawh chawlhkar hnih vel September thla 2012 khan dah ani. He issue a Trivedi man anih dan hi dan lam thiam mi (legal experts) tam tak ngaihdan nilovin thuneitute an chhuahchhal zui a. Supreme Court Judge hlui leh chutih hunlaia Press Council of India Chairman Justice Katju chuan Trivedi hian engmah dan bawhchhiatna a neilova, amah diklo taka man a, jail a dahtute te hian thilsual anti zawk ani tiin IPC a wrongful arrest and confinement behchhanin cartoonist thlavang hi a hauh a. Bombay High Court chuan March 18, 2015 khan he case chungchangah hian a judgement siamin; He Cartoonist hian tharumthawhna a che turin tumah a fuihpawrh lova, government/state machinery laka a thinrimna leh lungawilohna a tilang satliah ve mai ani, Tute pawhin sawrkar kalphung leh inrelbawlna hi na tak tak pawhin an sawisel thei a, tharumthawh tura midang fuihna thu an sawi anih loh chuan criminal offence/sedition ani theilo” tiin thutlukna (verdict) a siam ta ani (See Sanskar Marathe vs State of Maharashtra & Ors. [2015 CriLJ 3561]). He judgement hi activist-lawyer Sanskar Marathe in PIL file a Trivedi diklo taka man anih dan a choletna rahchhuah ani kan ti thei awm e. Tin, section 124-A and 153-A IPC hnuaia charge, Punjab a Akali Movement kaihhnawih ah 1984 khan hetiang lam deuh tho case hi a awm a. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi October ni 31 tlai a thah anih lawm luttuk, Punjab Government hnuaia sawrkar hnathawk pahnih Balwant Singh leh Bhupinder Singh office bang sloganeering avanga man leh kum khat hreawm taka jail tang a, Rs500 ve ve fine bawk tura Lower Court in a tih chu Supreme Court in thiam a chantir tak pawh an awm bawk. (See SC Judgement: Balwant Singh And Anr vs State Of Punjab on 1 March, 1995). Hmanni lawka Supreme Court vekin Shreya Singhal case a Section 66 A of IT Act a paihthlak dan te pawh kha kan la hre hlawmin ka ring. Kha historic judgement Indian Constitutional lawyer hmingthang Fali S. Nariman a fapa leh tunlai SC judge langsar, Justice Rohinton Nariman leh Guwhati High Court Chief Justice hlui Justice J. Chelameswar te siam ah khan speech chi thumin then ani a, chungte chu:- discussion, advocacy leh incitement te an ni. Discussion leh advocacy ringawt hi chu criminal offence a tling lova, incitement a tel chiah in Article 19 (2) ‘reasonable restriction’ kha a lekkawh theih chauh ani tiin freedom of speech chungchanga judgement pawimawh tak a awm bawk ani. (The Court holds that mere discussion or even advocacy of a particular cause, howsoever unpopular, is at the heart of Article 19(1)(a). It is only when such discussion or advocacy reaches the level of incitement that Article 19(2) kicks in. See Shreya Singhal vs U.O.I on 24 March, 2015).
Mamit Sumo chungchang bikah hian thil dang zawng ai chuan kan sawrkarna fawng chelhtute hian anmahni direct taka beihna pawh nilo vehicle owner/driver pakhatin kawngchhe lutuk a chauh pui thu a auchhuahpuina kha dan tanfung (legal basis) mumal tak pawh nei lovin; anmahni beihna emaw tiin huat ah anla ni mai hian a lang zawk a. Chuti nilova thuziak hrim hrim transport vehicle a tar tlan an khap dawn anih chuan Zoram chhunga motor tam zawk hi chu service theilo tur anni ngeiin a rinawm. Hetiang thuziak hote sawrkar MLA seat 40 ah 34 lai nei theiin huatah ala dawn anih chuan huat tur leh khap tura pui hi a tam dawn lutuk a, kan inkhap seng lovang. Tin, chutiang khapna fahrah te te chu chu Consitutional principle kalh ani tih leh democracy awmze hrethiam miahlo te rorelna rahchhuah ani tih mipuiin kan hriat a, kan dodal ngam a ngai ani. Chutiang thil diklo palzam leh mipuite Fundamental Rights pawh bawhchhiat pawisa lo sawrkar kan nei anih chuan thil vanduaithlak tak ani a. Democracy inghahna lungphum chu mipuite (demos) kan ni a. Sawrkar alo pian chhuahna chhan leh roreltu kan neihna chhante pawh hi kan zavaia that tlanna beiseina rilru atanga rawn chhuak ani. Kan mimal zalenna thenkhat kan common security/welfare atan kan compromise a, chumi insiamremna atanga sawrkar/state pawh hi lo piang a ngaih ani a. Mimal zalenna a pumhlum (absolute) lo ang bawkin Sawrkar thuneihna (power) pawh democracy ramah chuan a pumhlum (absolute) tur ani chuanglo. Tupawh lo sawrkar se sawrkar power hmansualna lak ata mipuite venghim tura rights te hi Constitution a awm leh a duangtute pawhin an lo dah ani a. Sawrkarna chelhtuten thusawi/thuziak an duh loh deuh leh an ngaimawh zawng apiang an target a, dan bawhchhia a an chhuah (an criminalize) mai lohna tur atana Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression pawh hi mumal taka Constitution a lo awm ani tih Constituent Assembly Debate kan chhiar chuan kan hre thei ang. A chhan chu checks and balances awm lova sawrkar thuneihna a awm chuan kan zaivaia tan chhiatna zakhua anih tih hi history atang pawhin mipuite hian kan inzir fing tawh ani. Sawrkar legitimacy rawn chhuahna tobul chu mipuite (popular consent) ani a. Tu party pawh sawrkar se chutianga mipuite consent pawh zahzo lova an fundamental rights rahbehsak ching sawrkar chu mipuite hian paihthlak theihna legitimate power kan nei ve ani tih pawh hriat a pawimawh khawp mai.
Kum 5 dana kan inthlanga vote kan va thlak leh ringawt ah hian mipuite hi kan democratic rights leh responsibility a tawp mai lova. Nitina kan nunhona leh sawrkarin dan leh thupek a kenkawhna kawngte, public policy a siamna ah te hian mipuite hian aw chi hrang hrang leh interests hrang hrang kan neihte hi kan sawichhuak thiang a, chu chu eng sawrkar mahin a ngaihthah thianglo ani. Nitina kan kan veng, khawtlang leh ram inrelbawlna atana tha tur, kan zavaia ngun taka forum hrang hrang a kan ngaihtuah hova; tha kan tih zawng leh tha kan tih lemlo pawh sawi chhuaka mumal taka public deliberation a awm hi functioning democracy mumal zawk kan neih theihna tur atan a pawimawh hle ani. Chutiang tih theihna hmun leh hun awmlohna ram chu democracy ram tia koh theih ani lovang. Chutiang environment tha leh zalen a awm theihna tur atana mipuite fundamental rights vawn him chu thlantlin sawrkar leh kan judicial institutions te mawhphurhna pawimawh berte zinga mi ani ti ila kan sawi sual awm love. British Philosopher John Stuart Mill chuan “Democracy is a government by discussion” tiin alo sawi a, chu discussion ah chuan khua leh tui zawng zawng a hausa leh rethei, chhim leh hmar, khawpui leh thingtlang inthliarna bik awm lovin stakeholder kan ni a, kan pawimawh em em vek ani. Chutah chuan hmung hrang hrang atangin sawrkar fakna leh sawiselna pawh a awm ngei ang. Chung chu ngun taka ngaihtuah a, rilru zau tak leh ngaihdan dang deuh kan pawmpui kherloh thil alo awm anih pawha zawldawh taka lo ngaithla thei sawrkar tuang chhah (thick skin),mahse mipuite harsatna hrethiam leh ngaihven tur khawp marphu nei (sensitive) ni si kan neih theihna tur atana zirlai pawimawh tak he issue hi lo ni se a duhawm hle mai.
He sumo a thil tar hian mipui ten kan dikna chanvo kan hriattharna atan min inpumkhat tir se; Civil Rights Movement laia thlalatu (photojournalist) pakhatin police rualin nunau pawisawilo ten ralmuang taka kawng an zawh lai an talhfiaka an pawng hlap lai a thehdarhin phung velh an sawi ang maia mipui rilru a dikna duhna a chawh thawh dan leh, ram kangin mual a tuam ang maia kha thu a darh chak ang khan kan Road Tax pek phu tawk tal kawng tha neih hi kan chanvo a ni tih hria a min thanharh tirtu hmanrua lo ni mawlh teh se.

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